In France's public institutions of higher education, the government bears the bulk of the cost of education—an average of €10,000 per student per year.
Annual tuition rates at public institutions are set by law. The rates for the 2012–13 academic year are, by degree program:
- €181 for licence programs
- €250 for master's programs
- €380 for doctoral programs
- €596 for programs leading to the diplôme d’ingénieur
Additional fees may be assessed for specific services.
Tuition rates at private institutions—particularly schools of business and management—is generally higher (from €3,000 to €10,000 annually).